Ice Cloud Bulk Scattering Models (Ice Cloud)
The outcome of this work is to provide state-of-the-art ice cloud scattering and absorption models for use with various remote sensing instruments, including lidars, satellite imagers, sounders, and interferometers. These scattering models are built consistently using the same microphysical data and development methodology.As our previous (Version 2) models have percolated through the community, the feedback obtained has been invaluable in our effort to improve the description of single scattering properties for the next generation of models. Earlier generations of bulk scattering models were based entirely on smooth particles, leading to scattering phase functions that had haloes and enhanced backscattering at solar wavelengths. This new generation of models also includes, among other advances, moderately or severely roughened particles.At solar wavelengths, use of roughened particles reduces the maxima (e.g., halos) at forward scattering angles and smoothes the phase function at backscattering angles, resulting in a decrease in the asymmetry parameter.As progress is made, access will be provided to spectral models (i.e., models developed at a single wavelength) and narrowband models in which the properties are integrated over a spectral response function. This time around, the models are formatted in netCDF.
Baum, B. A., P. Yang, A. J. Heymsfield, C. Schmitt, Y. Xie, A. Bansemer, Y. X. Hu, and Z. Zhang, 2011: Improvements to shortwave bulk scattering and absorption models for the remote sensing of ice clouds. J. Appl. Meteor. Clim., 50, 1037-1056.
Baum, B. A., P. Yang, A. J. Heymsfield, A. Bansemer, A. Merrelli, C. Schmitt, and C. Wang, 2014: Ice cloud bulk single-scattering property models with the full phase matrix at wavelengths from 0.2 to 100 µm. Submitted to J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiant. Transfer, Special Issue ELS-XIV.
Yang, P., L. Bi, B. A. Baum, K.-N. Liou, G. Kattawar, and M. Mishchenko, 2013: Spectrally consistent scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of atmospheric ice crystals at wavelengths from 0.2 µm to 100 µm. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 330-347.