TWERLE: Tropical Wind Energy Conversion and Reference Level (TWERLE)
The goals of the Nimbus 6 Tropical Wind Energy Conversion And Reference Level Experiment (TWERLE) were closely associated with the objectives of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) and included (1) measuring upper atmospheric winds in the tropics, (2) studying the relative air motion along isobaric surfaces to determine the rate of conversion of atmospheric potential energy into kinetic energy, and (3) providing direct measurements of various meteorological parameters that served as reference points in adjusting indirect temperature soundings made from satellites. The experiment consisted of two basic components: (1) approximately 300 constant-level meteorological balloons to yield measurements of winds, temperature, and pressure in the tropics and at southern hemisphere midlatitudes at 150 mb (about 13.6-km altitude), and (2) the Nimbus 6 random access measurements system (RAMS) to provide data collection and location determinations from the balloons.
From National Space Science Data Center, NSSDC ID: 1975-052A-01
- Dr. Verner E. Suomi Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC)
The Tropical Wind, Energy Conversion, and Reference Level Experiment (TWERLE): TWERLE flight test program data summary, (October-November 1971 and July-August 1972). [Madison, WI], [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Space Science and Engineering Center], 1972. Various paging. UW SSEC Publication No.72.12.T1.
TWERLE pressure sensor manufacturing manual. Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Space Science and Engineering Center, 1973. Various paging. UW SSEC Publication No.73.04.T1.
TWERLE transmitter and stable oscillator manufacturing manual. Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Space Science and Engineering Center, 1973. Various paging. UW SSEC Publication No.73.04.T2.
Levanon, N.; Julian, P. R., and Suomi, V. E. Antarctic ice topography and 150 mb circulation from the Nimbus-6 TWERLE experiment. Space Research v.18, no.1978, pp43-46. Reprint #2190.
Levanon, Nadav; Afanasjevs, Juris; Ellington, Scott D.; Oehlkers, Robert A., and Suomi, Verner E. The TWERLE balloon-to-satellite data transmitting system. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience Electronics v.GE-13, no.1, 1975, pp39-52. Reprint #1024.
Suomi, Verner E., Massman, William, Hinton, Barry, and Afanasjevs, Juris. Scientific investigations of Tropical Wind, Energy conversion and Reference Level Experiment (TWERLE). Final technical report, NASA grant NSG 5126 for the period July 1976-September 1977. Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Space Science and Engineering Center, 1978. 43p. UW SSEC Publication No.78.01.M1.